The End~

This is the last post entry for BCM310.

We have discussed self-regulation, pinkwashing, citizen journalism, online education, the hidden cost of media use and many issues. We got the chance to explore more opinions and point of view on each issue and we have to analyze it critically. Actually, ‘critical’ can be subjective, how critical we could be? There are no standards to judge it. However, we are trained to think more, think out the box, and put ourselves in different stakeholder’s shoes to perceive the issue. In short, we have to view those issues from different angles.

In my opinion, the most interesting topic would be pinkwashing as we discussed corporate uses breast cancer awareness to increase the sales and profits. However, the product it sold can be one of the harmful sources to lead breast cancer. It is a big conflict in between and it also requires the scale of ethical. In addition, my most favourite post entry would be “The Hidden Cost”. It reveals how electronic devices manufacturer produced and disposed the devices could actually bring harms to us. No much people are aware of it. This subject, BCM310 is doing good on disseminating information and create awareness on different media issues. As we work with Internet and WordPress, all information can be reached to people from worldwide and it plays an important role to educate the younger generation. On the other hand, the other topics are also very useful to us. We as the active users should aware of the cost, the effects, rules and regulations of Internet platforms including Facebook. Media can have several negative effects on us. Thus, we have the responsibility to ensure the quality of the content and also the safety on Internet.

Overall, thanks to our lecturer – Ms. Rohayu and BCM310 as she has taught me a lot of media issues and BCM310 covered different issues of media convergence and made me to become a student with good knowledge on the media. I could not say I am able to analyze an issue 100% critically, but at least I understand the issue well and able to make comments. Basically, I have gained a lot of knowledge from Ms. Rohayu and BCM310.


The Hidden Cost

We emphasize on green technologies heavily in nowadays and many organizations are doing go green campaign to reduce the impact of climate change. We want the media to be green and environmental friendly to us in the way of consumption and disposable (Maxwell & Miller 2012). However, there are several issues left behind by all the technologies that we have now.

First, do you aware of China Foxconn suicides incident?

Foxconn, a China manufacturer who produces electronic devices and hardware which including the most popular iPhone. The employees suicide due to the harsh working conditions (Greene 2012). It was not only one employee suicide but more than ten and it became the rash of suicide in Foxconn. According to an investigation made by New York Times, the employees of Foxconn factories need to build thousand Apple devices in a day which means they need to do the work as quickly as possible or even non stop (Duhigg & Barboza 2012). They are working in huge tension but receive limit payout and they could not adapt to the hard working environment thus, more then ten employees suicide. All these happened are because of the huge demand of iPhone from Worldwide. We want the iPhone then, it creates the demand thus, the employees are forced to work very hard and overtime due to they need the money to survive. This is a big social issue that should not be neglected. As a result, Apple has come out with supplier code of conduct which set a standard on labour issues, safety and other supplier responsibilities to fix any problems (Apple n.d.).

The second issue is e-waste. E-waste is the abandoned electronic appliances which including computers and mobile telephones are not appropriately disposed. More than 20 million tones of e-waste in every year are produced by many countries such as China and Europe (Robinson 2009). I totally agree with Maxwell and Miller (2012) as the electronic devices are produced, used and thrown away, the e-waste will poison and harm us, the animals, the plants and our living environment. E-waste contains hazardous substances such as lead and mercury which can have serious effects on human health (Ejiogu 2013) . For example, many countries disposed e-waste in Ghana and affected the children to be exposed heavily on hazardous chemicals which could lead to cancer (Greenpeace 2008).

e-waste in Ghana.

(Pictures from

The above picture shows monitors disposed in Ghana and try to imagine how the people stay in such dirty and polluted environment?

China people are working in harsh condition to produce iPhone and iPad and the poor in Ghana suffers from diseases such as cancer and polluted environment because of the technologies and electronic devices we are using now. Next, all of us included users, manufacturers, and suppliers have the responsibilities to reduce these two issues. We as the users have to be smart in disposing the electronic devices. Actually, we could resell our unused but still in good condition mobile phones and for those dysfunction electronic devices and hardware, actually we could recycle it. In order to encourage more people to recycle their mobile phones and batteries, DiGi, a Malaysia Telecommunication company rewarded three customers for putting efforts in recycling their mobile phones (Wing 2011).  Moreover, manufacturers and suppliers should come out with code of conduct to ensure the safety of the labours. It is not just about doing business to sell the electronic devices to the whole world but also social responsibility to give a better green future to our next generation. In addition, several nonprofit organizations are rising funds to help out the Ghana people who are suffering from the impact and health issues resulted by e-waste.

For more information about the way productions and disposed goods could affect our environment, please watch this video:

HowTheWorldWorks 2009, ‘Story of stuff, the critique part 1 of 4’, YouTube, accessed on 6th June 2013 <;


Apple n.d., ‘Supplier responsibility’, accessed on 6th June 2013 <>

Duhigg, C & Barboza, D 2012, ‘In China, human costs are built into an iPad’, New York Times, 25th January, accessed on 6th June 2013 <;

Ejiogu, A R 2013, ‘E-waste economics: a Nigerian perspective’, Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, Vol.24, No.2, pp 199 – 213

Greene, J 2012, ‘Riots, suicides, and other issues in Foxconn’s iPhone factories’, CNET News, accessed on 6th June 2013 <;

Greenpeace 2008, ‘Poisoning the poor – Electronic waste in Ghana, Green Peace News, accessed on 6th June 2013 <;

Maxwell, R & Miller, T 2012, ‘Introduction in Greening the Media Oxford University Press’ pp 1 – 20

Robinson, B H 2009, ‘E-waste: an assessment of global production and environmental impacts’, Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 408, pp 183 – 191

Wing, L 2011, ‘DiGi rewards 3 customers for recycling’, Mobile World, accessed on 6th June 2013 <;

The Risky Conversation

This week lecture is about moderating the conversation.

As previously we have discussed the issues of media converging and this is another social issue derived from it. Many newspapers publications have gone online which is also known as e-news in nowadays and the main feature of e-news is having commenting box which allows more people to share their thoughts. Moreover, we also have comment features in blog, social networking sites and many other websites to receive feedback.

Then, the issue comes in. Since we have freedom on commenting our thoughts on the Internet, all users will get affected by bad comments. That is the main reason we need to moderate the online dialogue, especially the comments as Fiona Martin (2012) said that a new gatekeeper is formed to moderate the user comments. It is because the comments can be a risk to someone, some organizations, and many other stakeholders. Thus, this gatekeeper should analyze the credibility and critical point of view of the published comments. For example, we have new law, act and body to monitor the contents on online media which is including Communications and Multimedia Act 1998 in Malaysia to secure the information and network’s reliability and integrity (MSC n.d.).

Internet is an open platform for all of us to speak, to share, and also to voice out our thoughts and comments. According to Nick Couldry (2009), we humans have the ability to voice out and we also have the ability to listen things that voiced out by other people. We will read the comments that published on Internet regarding a particular issue. For example, A New Zealand teenager, Micaela Stothers committed suicide after posting the bullying comments in social networking site (Parsons 2012). Any stories we posted online will “trigger” the public to comment and share the stories virally because we are born to “listen” what are other people “voicing out” on the social networking sites. We hardly ignore the comments and eventually, negative comments would lead to low self-esteem. People with low self-esteem will tend to share more negative stories about themselves and social networking site will not help them as it will make them more negative by keeping the negative comments themselves (NewsRX 2012) just like Micaela took her own life because of she created negative comments about herself. Moreover, a person who could not take the negative comments properly will have tendency to commit suicide like the New Zealand teenager did.

Actually it is difficult to keep a balance between civility and openness of online dialogue as rules and regulations that monitor the online dialogue will restrict the openness and truthfulness of the stories. We want the online dialogue to be free to voice out anything we favour but at the same time we also want the online dialogue to be high in credibility and no harms to all stakeholders. Thus, it is very important to practice on publishing good comments on the Internet. It is because we want to avoid antisocial behaviour such as cyberbullying and keep the online media high in civility. We still can share our thoughts but try to put yourself into the person’s shoes, how would you feel when you read the comment? Set a benchmark for yourself to judge and filter whether the comment you are going to publish is harmful to others or not. In addition, all of us have to be responsible to share good comments. In my opinion, the easiest practice would be self-regulation. We should avoid verbal attack on the Internet especially social networking sites and we also have to train up our emotional control ability to avoid ourselves being mentally disturbed by the negative comments.


Couldry, N 2009, ‘Rethinking the politics of voice’, Continuum: Journal of Media & Cultural Studies, Vol.23, No.4, pp. 579 – 582

Martin, F 2012, ‘Vox populi, vox dei: ABC Online and the risks of dialogue interfaction’, in Histories of Public Services Broadcasters on the Web, editors N, Brugger and M, Burns, pp. 177 – 192, Peter Lang, New York

MSC n.d., ‘Communications and Multimedia Act 1998’, Laws of Malaysia, accessed on 29th May 2013 <;

NewsRX 2012, ‘Association for Psychological Science: Facebook is not such a good thing for those with low self-esteem’, Psychology & Psychiarty Journal, 18th February, pp.86, accessed on 29th May 2013 <;

Parsons, C 2012, ‘Family of teenage girl, 17, who committed suicide over Facebook bullying discover she ‘posted the comments herself’, Daily Mail Online, 13th June, accessed on 29th May 2013 <;

Oh No! It’s White Bread!


(Picture is taken from

Wow. What a nice roti bakar with Sardin.



(Picture is taken from

Then, what about the new Massimo bread? It is delicious too.


This week’s blog post is all about the white bread.


(Picture is taken from

White bread? It is not the white bread shown at the above. The white bread here refers to the discrimination, biases and misrepresentation made by the media. It can be misrepresentation on gender, race, and many more that show in the media, or the common name for it is stereotyping

We might think those leaders, governments, and even ourselves should pay responsible for stereotyping (Times 2006). Yes, all of us have the responsibility. Opinion leaders should play important role to delivery accurate perception on different issues without biases. No one could look down on opposite gender. Then, the government also should have rules and regulations to monitor the content on the media to ensure it is accurate. Moreover, we also need to be equipped with the ability to judge and filter the misinterpretation content before we consume and spread the content.

According to Dreher (2014), it is not surprise that the media gets criticized from the society due to contribute tension towards the issue of racism in Australia. In addition, media serves as the biggest platform to disseminate information and media has the responsible to deliver the most accurate information without discriminate any parties. As uses and gratifications stated that, audiences use media for different purposes and one of the purposes is obtaining information or knowledge. Media is also an education tool, we have the false perception towards certain group of people or issues, so can we really blame on the media to “teach” us all these misinterpretation content?

First, the media misrepresents the issue and we, misinterpret the content published on the media. Different people have different opinion and perception towards an issue. The media is only did the task to deliver the information to the audiences, it is all about the way we interpret the content. If we want to think the content is bias towards a certain race, then it is stereotyping. Both, media and audiences are responsible for the stereotyping. Media such as journalism should be truthful on reporting the news. When, the media is bias then, it is our responsibility to interpret the content accordingly and critically.

I agree with McKenna (The Vancouver Sun 1988), as he said that not necessary the news media has to be responsible for the controversy on the issue. It can be the teacher, the parent or the government too. The newspapers published all the information about the issue accordingly, the media was not creating the problem to the community because it is all about the way on conveying and interpreting the information. A phrase sometimes can be ambiguity, if we interpret it negatively and interpretation can tend to be more bias. Furthermore, the public figure who delivers, makes, spreads, or tells the information must be clear and without any discrimination or prejudices. He is the original source for the information. He is the one who needs to be blamed if he stereotypes on gender, race, or other issues. Media is just a platform to inform the audiences on the content that the public figure has told in an event.

Thus, it is very interesting to put these stereotypes under the roof of “white bread media”. In my opinion, it is started off when Caucasians are more favourable to be involved in the media such as advertisement due to the audiences “see” them are more appealing. They are the white people then, the media becomes as white as the bread does. Thus, the “white bread media” is formed! Oh! I am stereotyping, don’t you think so? Yes, I stereotyped. It is because I bias on the Caucasians as they are the main characters for advertisements as they look good which means other races should not act and appear in the advertisements. In order to eliminate my stereotype on racism, I should receive various information from different media and different perspective. We should not just rely on one information source or media, we could compare to justify the content. As a communication student, I also need to be very critical, interpret the issue from different angles before I make my conclusion.



Dreher, T (forthcoming 2014), White bread media, The Media and Communications in Australia eds. S Cunningham and S Turnbull, Allen and Unwin

Times 2006, Racism is a worldwide problem; MY ANSWER, Times News, 20th September, retrieved on 13th May 2013, available on URL:

The Vancouver Sun 1988, McKenna defends media over racism controversy, The Vancouver Sun, 31st March, retrieved on 13th May 2013, available on URL:

What A Digital Age In Today?

Have you checked out the latest Samsung Galaxy S4’s specifications? It has special functions such as Air View, Air Gesture, Smart Scrolling and many more. The most interesting function is the Smart Scrolling which enables the users to scroll the page by eye-tracking. The eye-tracking technology will detect where you look at then navigate the screen (Kovach 2013). This function sounds cool, smart and enables for the disabled people to scroll the content by just moving their eye balls. However, the general design of this phone is not created to fulfill disabled people’s needs. The biggest question is, how to they use the phone to call and accept call when it is a touch screen device even though it has Smart Scrolling that ease them to read the content easily only. They only could use it for reading but not for other purposes. It has Air Gesture and Air View, enable users to accept calls without touching the screen but these are still not designed for disabled people as they could not touch the screen if they do not have limbs.

I am very agreed with Goggin and Newell (2007) as most of the innovative devices and technologies in nowadays are not expected to be user-friendly for the disabled people. The designers are seldom specially design the device or technology for disabled people. Most of the devices and technologies in nowadays are highly associated with our body. For example, iPhone’s Siri requires voice synthesizer. Imagine how do the disabled people to say a command? The designers seek to invent and create more innovative and advance technologies for the market and also for us but actually it is another business opportunity for them to target disabled people. Moreover, this business will give more various opportunities for different industries.

A real life example, Dillip Emmanuel invented a device with MIC300i modem and FullTalk TM software to enables the deaf people to receive, record, review calls via personal computer (Wagner 1992). This invention can be used by normal users too. The news covered this invention on 1992 but 11 years later, which is today we are still not able to see any inventions are more advanced and user-friendly for the disabled people. All the media are not purposely made for them such as blind people are not able to watch a TV commercial and they could not use social networking sites too.

Invention, technology for disabled people is not only benefit themselves but also increase job opportunity. As it requires more man power on research and development, more engineers and programmers are needed. For example, a people doing sign language which translated the content on TV program to enables the disabled people understand the content easily. We need a person with professional sign language skill and it increase the opportunity for everyone to learn a new skill and also a new job.

Let’s watch an example:

DigitalUKLtd 2011, Digital TV Switchover video (with British Sign Language),, retrieved on 10th May 2013, available on URL:

TV program with sign language maybe is very common in oversea, but in Malaysia we only can have this in RTM 1 and 2. Do you think we should have sign language translation for other channels especially Astro? It is very interesting to identify the reason behind for not having sign language translations on Astro or other channels? It is because the broadcasters feel that it is not important or it will occupy a certain space that will affect watching experience? In my opinion, it is not a practice execute by all broadcasters, it is not necessary for them to have sign language due to there are no restricted rules and regulations to urge broadcasters to implement sign language to every TV show.

We as the media practitioners, should give more priorities to the disabled people to enjoy the technologies and knowledges in nowadays. However, the way we could improve the technologies for disabled people is still stuck in the beginning. We should invest more on research and development to invent a device for disabled people. It can be a big market opportunity. It is not just a business to fight against the competitors or increase sales and profits but it also can be corporate social responsibility.



Goggin, G & Newell, C 2007, The business of digital disability, The Information Society: An International Journal, Vol.23, No.3, pp159 – 168

Kovach, S 2013, Samsung’s new phone can’t match the competition, Business Insider, 24th April, retrieved on 10th  May 2013, available on URL:

Wagner, C G 1992, Enabling the “Disabled”: Technologies for people with handicaps, The Futurist, Vol.26, No.3, pp29


Internet is everything, you can ask Mr. Google for any kinds of information as discussed in previous post. Moreover, you also could publish new knowledge or information to the Internet via social networking sites, blogs, or maybe Wikipedia. Internet is just like a public sphere for everyone to gain and distribute the information. We can access to the content easily as long as we have subscribed the content and we have Internet connection.

However, what you might not aware is feudalisation of Internet.

Technology is so advanced in nowadays. We have tablet, phoneblet (phone plus tablet in one device, such as Samsung Galaxy Note), optical fiber core network (UniFi), and the access to Internet is much easier compared to 5 years ago. All these technologies enhance the mobility of Internet (we have wifi connection!).

Based on my own understanding, feudalisation refers to higher authority holds a certain degree of power to control the least powerful people and favouring payment to exchange benefits. Then, “feudalisation of Internet” has a very “sophisticated” meaning but in my opinion, it is all about the ways higher authority uses Internet to control the information in order to achieve education purposes or mutual understanding with the audiences.

This week’s required reading is related to mobilization and normalization political participation (Hirzalla et al 2011). Besides of having normalization political participation such as seminar and forum, mobility is a new upraised platform for new political participation to reach the young people. Of course, mobilization political participation uses Internet, websites, social networkings or even applications. For example, President Obama owns a Twitter account to have better interaction with the public especially the youngsters. As we all know, youngsters might not be very active in politic issues. However, social networking is the trend now and Twitter has 500 million registered users which means the chance of audiences aware of President Obama’s tweets is higher as many of the 500 million users will follow him.

Furthermore, they can use the power of online advertisements to deliver information to such as video advertisement on YouTube, print advertisement on websites.

The rationales for having mobilization political participation are it can reach more young people, it is low cost, and it can work well with normalization (Hirzalla et al 2011). Do you have a Facebook or Twitter account? Yes, I have them both. How many hours per day you spend on Internet? I guess, more than 5 hours. Yes, Internet is just like a public sphere for us especially youngsters to spend most of their times with. Any information or public figures could reach us easily via Internet.

On the other hand, there are risks too and that is the reason of forming “walled garden”. “Walled garden” refers to restriction of users to access the content via external resources (PCMag n.d.).

The biggest risk of having feudalism on information is intellectual property rights (Drahos & Braithwaite). For example, copyright, patents, licensing and many more. Each information or resources published and shared by any politicians are protected. Audiences could only able to view and receive the information by subscribing the content. It becomes the disadvantage when it makes the audiences change their minds for not subscribing due to hassle procedure. However, intellectual property rights are important to protect the resources.

Not only intellectual property rights for mobilization political participation, we also can see many technologies are walled garden. For example, Apple’s iPhone. It has very own app store (itunes), operating system (ios), and many more. ios cannot be ran under other devices besides Apple. All the resources, material, and information are controlled and protected. In daily, it can increase the cost of access to the information too. Due to certain information such as journals are protected under copyrights, and we have to pay in order to view the full journal.

There are always pros and cons of Internet and also feudalisation of Internet but it can be denied that traditional media (or normalization) could work well with new media (mobilization).Thus, media in nowadays have converged.


Drahos, P & Braithwaite, J 2002, Information Feudalism: Who Owns The Knowledge Economy?, Earthscan Publications Ltd, London

Hirzalla, F et al 2011, Internet use and political participation: Reflections on the mobilization/ normalization controversy, The Information Society, An International Journal, Vol. 27, No. 1, pp 1 – 15

PCMag n.d., Definition of: Walled garden,, retrieved on 2nd May 2013, available on URL: []

Everything Goes Online

-Quick Test:

What would you do when you could not understand a new vocabulary?

a. Take out my antique dictionary and look for the meaning.

b. I will go google and search for the meaning.

My answer is B. Usually, I will ask Mr.Google the meaning of the vocab. It will tell me everything.


Which newspapers format do you prefer?

a. Of course is the traditional newspapers! The physical one.

b. E-newspapers a.k.a. online news.

c. Both physical newspapers and online news.

My answer is C. Sometimes I do enjoy to read free copy of newspapers when I am in the class. However, I will also read online news, perhaps it is more environmental friendly and easy to access, especially when the free newspapers are not available. 


How will you get your scholar references when you need them for assignments?

a. I go library and look for the journal books.

b. I will look for online journal.

My answer mostly is B. University of Wollongong (UOW) has e-library, I can get any journals from there. However, I still will go library to get the physical book if no e-books are available. 


My test result is “I rely on Internet a lot!”

Google is always the best tool for us to search anything that we do not know or understand.

Google is always the best tool for us to search anything that we do not know or understand.

Picture retrieved on 24th April 2013 is from

The digital media in nowadays is sophisticated especially the World Wide Web. It allows you to do many things. It can be your learning tools such as dictionary, books in electronic form (e-book), information source and many more. How many of us are still using snail mail to contact friends? We could use social networking sites or chatting applications to talk with friends even there is a long distance in between. Due to media convergence, Internet can do everything for you including music, video, and many more. For example, you can go iTunes to get the latest album from Justin Bieber or just go YouTube for the music videos. Everything just goes online and this is the digital phenomenon in nowadays.

In addition, it is not longer special to have online courses. Since the Internet is equipped with various tools from information to social networking and you can get anything you want just by Google it. You can even get your Bachelor Degree certificate by attending online courses. The students can access to special portal or “blackboard” (e-learning) for lesson videos and they could ask their lecturer questions by chatting software, e-mails, or web-cam. We can receive knowledge easily from Internet. Here is an example of open learning which is free online course. Students get to learn the lessons via videos.

Buckland, R 2012, Lecture 0: Introduction – Computing 1 – Richard Buckland UNSW,, retrieved on 24th April 2013 available on URL: []

Internet is fulled of various resources. However, are they free of charge? Some online courses are available for free but in general topic. Then, some scholar articles or journals could cost $30.00 and above for one copy only. So, how do students could afford to purchase more than one journal? Miller (2010) said that the Internet is such a universe and collaborative networks for lecturers and students could and they could work with information that are freely available on the Web. As I mentioned during the beginning, UOW do have e-library with more than 10, 000 journals and we students could access to all the journals for free. This is the biggest advantage of e-library. On the other hand, some materials on Internet are open sources and users could get them without paying a penny. This is the power of Internet. We can receive thousand of open sources such as software, e-books, and many more. As one of the university’s primary mission is to deliver knowledge in depth and the Internet enables the university to work and teach with variety and credible information (Miller 2010) either it is chargeable or open source.

We, the students are benefit from e-library that provided by the university with tons of journals. However, it becomes a struggle for higher education to get the print documents which is fully copyrighted because they are expensive (Miller 2010). It is also a challenge for the individuals who do not have access to e-library. Then, a boycott activity was occurred – Boycott Elsevier. More than 10, 000 scientists pledge to boycott Elsevier as the website is charging expensive for knowledge (Elsevier n.d.). Elsevier is one of the leading journals and books providers and it can charge base on pay-per-view which means one copy for one time or pay $31.50 for one journal via personal print subscription. It is really expensive. Eventually, the expensive journals will result collges or universities cut subscriptions and consequently lower in quality of education especially on 1999 to 2000 (Heindel et al 2005). However, Elsevier and other journal providers do give free access to certain contents. The problem is the free contents are only limited to “abstract” only and we call it as “guest view”. You still have to pay it for full access.

The Internet are available for everyone, open sources are free, and we have many things on Internet are free. Why can’t the journals to be free also so higher education could provide students more journals and knowledge?

Actually, not all providers are charging costly. For example, AccessMyLibrary is now offering students and educators with free access to more than 30 million online articles (Anonymous 2007). This is amazing! There are also free e-mail, blogging for schools which is provided by ePals (Anonymous 2007). These are from an article written in 2007. That is 5 years back and with more and more sources are available freely. For sure, there are changes and improvements within these 5 years. By today, we do have e-library, we can access via e-library to get the paid journal. We also can enjoy free services such as Facebook, YouTube,  Word Press, MOOC (Massive Online Open Courses) and many more.

In my opinion, we are not necessarily 100% rely on paid copyright journals either we pay by our own or provide by university’s e-library. We still can wisely use open sources to complete our assignments or to work with open source information. For example, Wiley Open Access ( allows us to get full access to journals and research articles that are published under Wiley (Wiley n.d.). So, we can go Wiley to search for journals instead of JSTOR.Open source is another option for us.


Anonymous 2007, What’s ONLINE, T.H.E. Journal, Vol. 34, No. 10, pp 4

Elsevier n.d., Journal pricing,, retrieved on 24th April 2013 available on URL: []

Heindel, N D et al 2005, Are chemical journals too expensive and inaccessible?: A workshop summary to the Chemical Sciencces Roundtable, Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology, The National Academies Press, Washington D.C.

Miller, R E 2010, The coming apocalypse, Pedagogy, Vol. 10, No. 1, pp 143 – 151

Wiley n.d., About Wiley open access,, retrieved on 24th April 2013 available on URL: []